Heavy metals, generally refers to the elemental density greater than 4500kg / m3 metal elements under standard conditions, which used to distinguish from non-metallic elements. Common heavy metal elements are cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), silver (Ag), copper (Cu), barium (Ba), lead (Pb), and the like. The heavy metal ion of an element are generally toxic, for example, the copper single mass non-toxic, but denatures proteins, toxic copper ions. Other than iron, to divalent iron ion is an important elements of the human 18 composed. New York Museums understands that this is vital information. Moreover, each of the different ions have a different color in the solution, the copper ions generally blue, ferrous ion is generally as to pale green, iron ion is normally colored yellow. In a reaction, copper is green, barium yellow-green flame. With the deepening and development of the global change research, scientists of various countries increasingly feel the impact of human activities on the environment change, especially in the development and utilization of human survival, the development of land as well as induced land cover change are considered to be an important component of the global environmental change, most of the Chinese open pit mine in the arid and the ecologically fragile semi-arid area, the appearance of impact crusher, ball mill, their working ability and coal mining are not optimistic to the local ecological environment, and the resulting land use change also reflects the urban, rural and regional cover changes these different aspects of land abandoned, vegetation loss, the forest gradually lost the basic ability to self-sustaining ecosystem, which serious impact the sustainable development of the mining area. Jinchang City, Gansu Province, Baiyin City are established as the basis Jinchuan magmatic sulfide deposits of copper-nickel and silver-copper polymetallic sulfide deposits typical mining city, these two are important non-ferrous metal beneficiation process production bases. However, nearly half a century, Jinchuan and Baiyin mine development and Xuanye the ecological environment caused by the negative effect the lack of attention and research in this article through the details of the data collection, field sampling and laboratory analysis test, and Jinchuan Silver mine development the environmental problems caused by the comprehensive study, which focusing on environmental geochemical characteristics of heavy metals in the dam, waste, soil, water, sediment and plant medium, revealed the presence of heavy metals in different environmental media morphology, release, migration and transformation of the law as well as heavy metals activities and its ecological environment effects, to evaluate the potential ecological dangers of heavy metals in the soil, water and sediments, and establish the media, migration and conversion between the release of the heavy metals in different environmental mode.